All fuel cells are based around a central design using two electrodes separated by a solid or liquid electrolyte that carries electrically charged particles between. Electrical cells and battery electronics tutorials. Have students experiment with the mfc and attach them in different ways. Currently, fuel cells are rather expensive and contain features that cause them to fail after a relatively short time. The general concept of a fuel battery, or fuel cell, dates back to the early days of electrochemistry. Since publication of the first edition offuel cell systems explained, three compelling drivers have supported the continuing development of fuel cell technology. There are several types of fuel cells currently under development, each with its. An important characteristic of a fuel cell is the type of electrolyte used. Fuel cells generate electricity and heat during electrochemical reaction which happens between the oxygen and hydrogen to form the water. Fuel cells are different from most batteries in requiring a continuous source of. Types history of the technology the fuel cell concept was first demonstrated by william r.
Set up mfc using different types of sediment, or sediment with different levels of sugar added. This shows a summary of the different types of fuel cells. To overcome the various technical problems, many different fuel cell types have been developed. A very good fuel cell while dead cold can, at present, theoretically run at about 83 percent efficiency.
A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed. In some cases, the reformation can take place directly on the electrode surface, especially methanoltohydrogen. Comparison of the pemfc type and others is summarized below. It is the first type widely used on space applications 37, 41. First fuel cellfirst fuel cell 3 in 1839, william grove, a british jurist and amateur physicist, first discovered the principle of the fuel cell.
Polymer electrolyte membrane is also known as proton exchange membrane fuel. This is because a fuel cell is continuously supplied with fuel and air or oxygen from an external source, whereas a battery contains only. If hydrogen is the fuel, electricity, water, and heat are the only products. Table 11 summary of major differences of the fuel cell types 18. Table i lists the various types of fuel cells along with electrolyte used, operating temperature, and electrode reactions. The reactions that produce electricity take place at the electrodes. Materials on the eere web site are in the public domain. While there are several different types of fuel cells, proton exchange membrane or pem fuel cells are now found under the hood of most prototype fuel cell cars and buses.
Department of energy office of fossil energy national energy technology laboratory p. The efficiency of these type of fuel cells has risen to 50% in a combined electrical and steam cycle. Electrons are forced to travel to the cathode via an external circuit because of the nonconductive nature of phosphoric acid. These characteristics, in turn, affect the applications for which these cells are most suitable. Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells provide highpower density and the advantages of low weight and volume compared to other types of fuel cells. Let the solution sit for 2448 hours and measure the fuel cell voltage again. Also referred to as proton exchange membrane fuel cells, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells employ porous carbon electrodes containing a platinum catalyst and a solid polymer as the electrolyte. All of the fuelcell rail vehicles described above used the pemfc type. A section is devoted to fuel generation and storage, which is of paramount importance for the practical aspects of fuel cell use. Electrolysis setup by application of a voltage across the two electrodes, hydrogen and oxygen could. A fuel cell resembles a battery in many respects, but it can supply electrical energy over a much longer period of time. This classification determines the kind of electrochemical reactions that take place in the cell, the kind of catalysts required, the temperature range in which the cell operates, the fuel required, and other factors. Types of fuel cells department of chemical engineering. The cell he demonstrated was very simple, probably resembling this.
The dynamic behavior of fuel cells is of importance to insure the stable operation of the fuel cells under various operating conditions. Typical reactants used in a fuel cell are hydrogen on the anode side and oxygen on the. However, batteries are classified into four broad categories namely primary cell, secondary cell, fuel cell and reserve cell. An electrochemical cell is a device that can generate electrical energy from the chemical reactions occurring in it, or use the electrical energy supplied to it to facilitate chemical reactions in it. One great appeal of fuel cells is that they generate electricity with very little pollutionmuch of the hydrogen and oxygen used in generating electricity ultimately combine to form a harmless byproduct, namely water. Since publication of the first edition of fuel cell systems explained, three compelling drivers have supported the continuing development of fuel cell technology. In contrast, a fuel cell is a galvanic cell that requires a constant external supply of one or more reactants to generate electricity.
Types of fuel cells fuel cell designation electrolyte temperature c cell efficiency load partial load type of application alkaline fuel cell afc aqueous koh 60. Alkaline fuel cell system is one of the first developed fuel cell technology with the simplest structure. Pdf utilization of different types of wastewater for. Grove utilized four cells, each containing hydrogen and oxygen, to produce electric power which was then used to split the water in the smaller upper cell into hydrogen and oxygen. There are many types of fuel cells, but they all consist of an anode, a cathode. The choice of gasflow arrangement depends on the type of fuel cell, the application, and other. Fuel cell, any of a class of devices that convert the chemical energy of a fuel directly into electricity by electrochemical reactions. Microbial fuel cells mfcs are bioelectrochemical devices that convert the chemical energy present in organic or inorganic compounds into electric current by using microorganisms as the catalysts. Many of the choices facing fuel cell developers are constrained by the choice of electrolyte. There are several types of fuel cell vehicles on the market, including the mercedes f cell and toyotas new mirai. Fuel cells require relatively pure fuel, free of specific contaminants. And that problem is compounded by the fact that the plants that make the hydrogen lose energy in the process of doing so. Alkaline fuel cell an overview sciencedirect topics.
Molten carbonate fuel cell mcfc they operate at 600c and can use co as a fuel input on the cathode side but need hydrogen on the anode. Fuel cell handbook national energy technology laboratory. Pdf comparative study of different fuel cell technologies. Wellwritten and concise, the third edition maintains that tradition. Fuel cell systems can be designed for both indoor and outdoor installation, and in close proximity to sensitive environments.
This can make it difficult for those new to the field to identify the issues associated with fuel cell development. Low temperature aqueous alkaline electrolyte cells have the advantage of being able to start up easily from cold, and operate. Molten carbonate fuel cell mcfc and solid oxide fuel cell sofc technologies are hightemperature fuel cells that are flexible as regard to choice of fuel. Finally, zoning for fuel cell systems is easier than other types of dg systems. Grove utilized four cells, each containing hydrogen and oxygen, to produce electric power which was then used to split the water in. These contaminants include sulfur and carbon compounds, and residual liquid fuels depending on the type of fuel cell that can deactivate the fuel cell catahydrogen fuel cell engines and related technologies.
During the late 1880s two british chemistscarl langer and germanborn ludwig monddeveloped a fuel cell with a longer service. To overcome the various technical problems, many different fuel. Fuel cell definition, working, types, and applications of. The sofc type allows natural gas reformation directly on the electrode surface.
Table 11 summary of major differences of the fuel cell types. Afcs use a liquid solution of potassium hydroxide koh as an electrolyte that conducts ions between two electrodes. The inputs are hydrogen and oxygen, and the outputs are electricity, water, and heat. Types of fuel cells how fuel cells work howstuffworks. In the1960s, international fuel cells in windsor connecticut developed a fuel cell power. A fuel cell is the kind of cell where the chemical energy from a fuel fed into the cell is converted into electrical energy through a. Fuel cell definition, working, types, and applications. Thus, the different types of fuel cells and the working of an alkaline fuel cell are briefly discussed in this article along with some of the applications of these electrochemical cells. Because of that each type has a different electrochemical reaction, catalylist material, fuel required, temperature range and applications. Types and applications 381 cheng s, liu h, logan be 2006a increased performance of single chamber microbial fuel cells using an improved cathode structure. Fuel cell efficiency since fuel cells use materials that are typically burnt to release their energy,gy, y the fuel cell efficiency is described as the ratio of the electrical energy produced to the heat that is produced by burning the fuel its enthalpy of formation or. An introduction to fuel cells and hydrogen technology by brian cook, heliocentris vancouver, canada whereas the 19th century was the century of the steam engine and the 20th century was the century of the internal combustion engine, it is likely that the 21st century will be the century of the fuel cell. To learn more about this technology and other related topics, register with byjus and download the mobile application on your smartphone. To illustrate the basic reaction common to fuel cell types, picture a simple acid fuel cell developed by.
Electrolytes used in fuel cell technology can be either liquid or solid, leading to. The efficiency of fuel cells is typically about 40% to 60%, which is higher than the typical internal combustion engine 25% to 35% and, in the case of the hydrogen fuel cell, produces only water as exhaust. Department of energys energy efficiency and renewable energy fuel cell technologies program fuel cell comparison chart. Fuel cells are different from most batteries in requiring a continuous source of fuel and oxygen usually from air to sustain the chemical reaction. Types of batteries and cells and their applications. Hydrogen is the basic fuel, but fuel cells also require oxygen. Among a few different fuel cell types, the direct methanol fuel cell dmfc has been known to have advantages especially for portable applications 12. Three wastewater samples, agro wastewater, diary wastewater, distillery wastewater from nearby qasimabad hyderabad, were utilized as substrate in microbial fuel cell mfc to generate electricity. Fuel cells are unique in terms of the variety of their potential applications. Different fuel cell types are available and can be characterized by the materials used in the membrane. Electrolytes used in fuel cell technology can be either liquid or solid, leading to different design advantages and challenges. In this section, we describe the chemistry behind some of the more common types of batteries and fuel cells. A fuel cell is a device that converts chemical potential energy from a fuel into electrical energy through an electrochemical reaction of hydrogen with oxygen or another oxidizing agent.
Dec 15, 2000 next, the different types of fuel cells and their main components are explained and the related material issues are presented. Box 880 morgantown, west virginia 265070880 november 2004. Phosphoric acid fuel cell pafc edit solid acid fuel cell safc edit alkaline fuel cell afc edit. Every fuel cell has two electrodes, one positive and one negative, called, respectively, the anode and cathode. Next, the different types of fuel cells and their main components are explained and the related material issues are presented. At present there are several different fuel cell types at various stages of development around the world, and for each fuel cell type there are several designs being pursued by differing industrial players. One example is thermal cell where the electrolyte remains inactive in its solid form until the heat applied melts the electrolyte to activate the cell. Finally, attention is given to the integration of the fuel cells into complete systems. An overview of fuel cells currently under development. The working temperatures of these cells lie in the range of 150 oc 200 o. Thin layer of platinum or other metals, depending on the type of. Figure 41 various proton exchange membrane fuel cell stacks. Electrochemical cell definition, description, types.
Summary in the previous application note, the principle of a fuel cell was described and some of the problems in their use as viable technology were discussed. The most commonly used fuels are natural gas and hydrogen, which is discussed here. The heart of the fuel cell engine is the fuel cell stack. The battery is an energy storage device in which all the energy available is stored within the battery itself at. Fuel cells are classified primarily by the kind of electrolyte they employ. The fuel cell will compete with many other energy conversion devices, including the gas turbine in your citys power plant, the gasoline engine in your car and the battery in your laptop. A fuel cell is the kind of cell where the chemical energy from a fuel fed into the cell is converted into electrical energy through a chemical reaction with oxidizing agent. A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy of a fuel often hydrogen and an oxidizing agent often oxygen into electricity through a pair of redox reactions. There are mainly two categories of battery called primary and secondary cells. Fuel cells part 2 types of fuel cells keywords fuel cell. British physicist william grove used hydrogen and oxygen as fuels catalyzed on platinum electrodes in 1839. A fuel cell consists of two electrodes, the anode and the cathode, separated by an electrolyte.
Since the electrolyte is a solid, the cells do not have to be constructed in the platelike configuration typical of other fuel cell types. Degradation jennifer kurtz pi, huyen dinh, genevieve saur, chris ainscough june 8, 2017. A fuel cell is a device that generates electricity by a chemical reaction. This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information.
Fuel cells are different from most batteries in requiring a continuous source of fuel and oxygen usually from air to sustain the chemical reaction, whereas in a battery the chemical energy usually comes. The first alkaline fuel cell came up with bacon and suffered several improvements in the constitution of electrodes and consequently had different operating temperatures 11. Scientists and inventors have designed many different types and sizes of fuel cells in the search for greater efficiency, and the technical details of each kind vary. An electrolyte in a fuel cell connects the fuel and oxidizer electrically while keeping them physically separate. Hydrogen is pumped into the fuel cell as a gas, and when it ignites, it combines with oxygen to produce only water and heat, with zero toxic emissions. Combustion engines like the turbine and the gasoline engine burn fuels and use the pressure created by the expansion of the gases to do mechanical work. Ever since its initial publication, fuel cell systems explained has been one of the most approachable books on the subject.700 1195 291 1297 1273 185 106 30 56 605 1448 344 1024 757 674 330 1024 1333 749 1490 1254 1057 606 657 54 1088 920 49 1498 433 511 1214 617 467 1308 631 247